Модель: Land degradation is a major problem undermining land productivity in the Ethiopian highlands. After a thorough review of the resource base, economic structure and production system as well as land degradation situation in Ethiopia and in the Amhara region; this book dwells with three empirical investigations. The first two empirical studies explore the factors affecting households'' adoption decision to invest in land conservation and their decision on how much (intensity) to invest. While the first study focuses on plot-level decision to investment, the second study deals with decision at the household-level. Using the multinomial logistic model and 4,795 household-plot level observations, the third study examines the factors leading to differences in the households''preferences among the various forms of land conservation investments. In the first two studies, a double- hurdle (DH) model is used to analyze the panel data collected through a survey from 6408 plots and 1251 households in the Amhara region. The three empirical studies have generated results with significant ramifications to policy. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: The book shades light on the assessment of the status and characteristics of the natural and cultural agricultural resources, evaluation of their suitability for major food crop production and the appropriate management plan in relation to information on how severe the problem is, what the determinant factors are, which land units are the most vulnerable, and which management practices are more effective to tackle the problem in an efficient and cost-effective manner in the Legemara Watershed. Timely and appropriate land use and land cover change detection of the given land features are important to understand relationships and interactions between human and natural phenomena in order and to promote better decision making to recommend alternative land use and appropriate conservation planning. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: To increase profitability, some transactions should be carried out within a firm rather than between firms and this is one of the reasons why multinational companies exist. In other words, there are transactions that should be “internalized” to reduce transaction costs and hence increase profitability. This theory may answer the question why production is carried out by the same firm in different locations. One of the reasons of internalization is market imperfection. Any kind of economically useful knowledge can be called technology. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Poverty, malnutrition, low agricultural productivity, severe land degradation, shortage of water and fuel wood are common problems in the highlands of Ethiopia. A complex set of natural, political, and socio- economic factors have been responsible for the degradation of land resources. This study was conducted to characterize the nature of land use practices, nature and extent of land degradation in the highlands, assess the causes of land use change and land degradation, identify knowledge gaps and some options about the possible pathways of overcoming the problems and improve agricultural productivity. This study shows that the perspectives of local communities and households about the dynamics of land use, management and the degradation process and possible solutions are very useful and practical contribution to the research, extension and policy making community as well as the generality of citizens in the region. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Ethiopia provides a well-known example of a severely degraded African environment with consequent implications for food insecurity and famine. Physical land degradation after road building has been observed in Central Ethiopian highlands through gully erosion. In this research work by using a number of methods such as Field observation, gully measurement, GIS technique ,the 1997and 2006 topomap and socio-economic questionnaires, the impacts of the road on land degradation has been studied. It investigates how highway construction in the Ethiopian Highlands affects the gully erosion risk by quantifying the catchement area before and after road construction, the number of gullies created, and its characteristics in two selected cases: Addis Ababa-Fiche and Addis Ababa-Ambo. Accordingly; since the building of the road, 17 new gullies were created immediately downslope of the studied road segmensts and 8 other gullies at a radical change in its dimensions. The average catchement area is now 58.28 hectares and 74.52 on the road segments of Fiche and Ambo respectively, which is significantly different (p - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Agricultural lands in many developing countries are increasingly declining primarily because of land degradation, which is a major cause of poverty in the rural areas. Of all the problems, soil erosion by water is the most threatening and widespread ecological process that adversely affect rural population by reducing productivity and resource degradation. This is more serous in some agrarian countries like Ethiopia specifically the high lands. Soil erosion is not only the burning issue of today but also a menace to the future. To curve this tragedy, numbers of soil and water management activities have been extensively carried out in the Ethiopian highlands. However, such tremendous efforts were not able to attain the objectives anticipated. Hence, this book is devoted to assess the numbers of interrelated factors that shared their respective roles in aggravating soil erosion, and adversely affecting the effectiveness of the conservation measures practiced in the study area. And, it is believed that the book will be helpful for researchers, planners, and people working in resources conservation and related aspects in Ethiopia. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Soil erosion problem in Ethiopian highlands has reached a stage where it is difficult to sustain the existing low and subsistence production for food and to gain foreign exchange. In response to this problem, the government has taken some measures to reduce the problem of soil erosion in some degraded highlands, including the study area. This study tries to assess the conditions and determinants of physical soil and water conservation (PSWC) practices in Kalu district using both primary and secondary data. The primary data were generated from 200 randomly selected farm households cultivating 364 farm plots. Multinomial logit model was employed to estimate determinants of the use of PSWC practices at plot level. The result of the study revealed that multiple factors such as age, education level of the farm household head, off-farm income, number of economically active members, number of plots, distance, slope, perception of severity of soil erosion, fertility, number of years in which plot was used, irrigation access and extension services and training as well as project support in SWC significantly affected farm households' use of PSWC practices. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: In response to the extensive degradation of land and its negative impact on food security, focusing on the highlands where the trouble is more intimidating, a number of potential land management technologies have been introduced throughout Ethiopia since the 1970s. The basic paradigm and approach to land and water conservation has also evolved over time. Anchored in this, in recent years more holistic and land-scape wide approaches that go beyond resource conservation towards improved land husbandry and water management for bene?cial conservation have also been promoted using a national guideline known as Community Based Participatory Watershed Development (CBPWD). However, , in promoting a major change in preceding approaches, evaluating the consequences of past interventions on the livelihood of the intended users, and lessons and successes learnt from failures have to be considered as instrumental. This paper, therefore, attempts to review and assess major land management practices, and their outcomes in West Hararhge zone of Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Concerns for biodiversity conservation have heightened since Rio de Janeiro 1992 meeting of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and the subsequent Convention on Biodiversity. However, the rate of investment in agroforestry systems for agro-biodiversity conservation has been slower than expected. The Kakum Conservation Area (KCA) in Ghana is a national forest reserve, which forms part of the severely fragmented Guinean Forest of West Africa. It is a habitat for endangered larger mammals such as forest elephants, leopards, giant forest hogs, diversity of insect and birds. Nevertheless, the livelihoods of about 240,000 people depend on this forest. The people engage in economic activities such as cocoa farming in the fringes of the reserve which affect the KCA management. Conservation International with funding from World Bank developed a conservation cocoa agroforestry technology to enhance agro-biodiversity conservation by cocoa producers in the buffer zones of the KCA. This book explains how the socioeconomic characteristics of cocoa producers, market incentives, biophysical and other factors influence the extent of producer investment in the technology. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: This work discusses the Ethiopian urban land lease policy and its characteristics, challenges of its implementation and the remedies to be under taken. Achieving efficient land use, encouraging investors and investment and realizing the cost of urban land and make an efficient use of it are some of the major national and regional goals in Ethiopia. To achieve these goals, the government of Ethiopia has accepted urban land lease policy as the alternative land tenure system so as to provide a room for individuals and investors to land to use land use rights through transferring from the state to land users. However, Opinions collected from residents, investors and financial institutions in Addis Ababa and the lease towns of the Amhara national regional state indicate that there are problems related to the implementation of the policy in an efficient utilization of urban land in encouraging investment and the appropriate use of the money generated from lease. Hence, the writer argues that Institutional constraints, legal gaps and proper land and mortgage registration systems should be given due attention so as to get the desired objectives of the lease policy. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: This book examines the global political-economic and discursive forces driving the current land grabbing phenomenon as well as its material effects at the local level. Whilst media and academic attention has been centred on the acquisition of land for crop production, this book takes a broader perspective, focusing on tourism and conservation as drivers of land grabbing. Research findings are based on fieldwork carried out in Hacienda Looc in the Philippines, where a sizeable area of land has been appropriated for the construction of an eco-tourism resort. It is argued that land grabbing needs to be seen as a form of “accumulation by dispossession” being driven by neoliberal policies which favour investors over the interests of the poor. A political economy approach is adopted to facilitate a critical analysis of the impacts of the land grab in Hacienda Looc, with a particular focus on property relations, labour regimes, livelihoods and poverty reduction. Contrary to the “win-win” narratives propagated by mainstream institutions, the poor invariably lose out as they experience new forms of exclusion alongside adverse incorporation into the neoliberal capitalist economy. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Ethiopian mustard has evolved as a natural cross between Brassica nigra and B. oleracea in the highlands of Ethiopia.It is a source of food, manure, oil and raw material for many industries producing varnishes, paints, lubricants, diesel fuel, soap and lamps. Ethiopian mustard is a source of gene for improving disease resistance especially black leg, drought, shattering and insect resistances for other brassica species like B. napus and B. juncea. In order to exploit inherent potential of Ethiopian mustard for improving itself and its related and important brassica species collecting and studying diversity, genetic gain and interrelationship among agronomic traits of Ethiopian mustard from diverse regions of Ethiopia is crucial. As a matter of fact, 60 genotypes of Ethiopian mustard collected from 16 different and diverse regions of Ethiopia were studied in the present work. Thus, it is a valuable reference material for plant breeders, conservation specialists, students, development workers and other expertise. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Land degradation: manifested in different forms soil erosion; rills and gully formation, fertility decline, moisture stress and organic matter depletion is the main cause of deterioration for soil productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. One of the direct causes of land degradation is inadequate investments in soil conservation. Thus it required urgent SWC intervention measures. If conservation is to have lasting effect, has to be related to the causes and processes of degradation. This work examined the impact of SWC practices on the improvement of soil properties: the physical and chemical properties of the soil; rill and gully erosion: the magnitude and rate of rill and gully erosion; and crop productivity(yield) on cultivated fields in two land units, conservation treated and untreated. It valued farmers’ perception in relation to soil erosion problem: land resource degradation and management problems; experience in SWC and attitude to the physical SWC measures, major SWC activities to control soil erosion and soil fertility decline. The work should help farmers, agroforestry; universities; professionals in agriculture and environment; and policy makers. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Communal lands are source of livelihood for rural peoples of Ethiopia. Especially, communal grazing lands are important sources of livestock feed and most of the livestock population are mainly dependent on natural pasture and crop residue. Such areas are managed based on the collective action of communities that have protected them from complete disappearance. However, these local community grazing land management systems have not been given policy attention. In addition, land is currently subdivided from communal lands and given to different parties for different purpose by the government without considering local community and without any compensation. Thus, communal grazing lands are decreasing in size and its productivity at a faster rate, faced with severe land degradations, subject to competition with another type of land-uses and becoming a source of frequent conflicts. This book, therefore, tries to show the major communal grazing land problems and its impact on agricultural communities whose life is highly dependent on it. The analysis and outcomes of this work is expected to be utilized by researchers, academicians, land managers, policy makers and strategy developers. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Information Technology and banking performance is one of the most exciting areas of research that has been the focus of intense interest throughout the globe over the decades, but little has been devoted to examine the impact of IT on the profitability of African banks, specially in sub Sahara countries. This empirical study examines the impact of IT investment on the profitability of Ethiopia banking sector along with other bank specific profit determinants. It should be known that In Ethiopian banking sector the context for making IT investment decisions has been altered in the recent years. Currently modern banking services such as ATM services, Mobile banking, Internet and SMS banking are increasingly becoming available. With respect to profitability, Ethiopian banking is booming. Financial results for the 2010 fiscal year show an industry enjoying high growth, high profits, and high dividends. Their profits were up 45 percent and shareholders (at banks open for more than a year) received an average return of 27 percent on their investments. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.
Модель: Eco tourism is an optional form of tourism and has become the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and recently getting high attention by the world people for education, conservation of resources, and appreciation of cultures and considered a prime tool for environmentally degraded destination by agricultural activities. In this regard, Ethiopia currently is home to many Mountains, National parks and protected wildlife Sanctuaries and Reserves which are excellent for eco-tourism development; however, promoting eco tourism has not been travelling far.If the government encouraging well, developing community based eco tourism in the mountainous areas are an optional and pleasing way for the conservation of biodiversity and enhances sustainable development to the local community, at the same time it can give ample room for the community psychological empowerment on the rights over the resource utilization and dividing of benefits equally. This book which it can provides actual evidence that, Ethiopia Mountains could be well regarded as a right place successfully to develop community based Eco-tourism. - посмотрите genanew bekele worku investment in land conservation in the ethiopian highlands на сайте интернет-магазина.